From BiblePlaces.com, a really handy little list:
A family member asked me for a brief list of major regions in the biblical world that are mentioned in the news today by other names. Since most Bible dictionaries do not have entries for the modern names, this list is intended to bridge that gap. With the ancient names in hand, you can consult a Bible dictionary for more details.
Go check it out.
This is important, especially when teaching children the Bible. We want them to learn that it is describing real places, real people, real events that really happened. If they see places called Ammon and Moab in the Bible, and then go look on a map and don’t see it, they can wonder if it is all real.
Sometimes, too, we understand the text better if we know the actual geography. Don’t let ignorance of something that is easy to learn trip you up. We can identify, or at least make an educated guess at, most of the places named in the Bible.