A King Who Knew Not Joseph

The Bible in the British Museum

© The Trustees of the British Museum

This Egyptian stone lion bears the throne name of Khyan, who ruled from about 1610-1580 B.C.  It is only about 20 inches long, but as far as I know it is the largest item in the Museum from the XVth dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs — the Hyksos rulers.

The Hyksos were foreigners.  Some of our knowledge of the Hyksos comes from Manetho, an Egyptian priest in the 3rd century B.C. who wrote a history of Egypt.  He suggested that the Hyksos came to power after a military invasion, but no one knows for certain.

Some Bible scholars think that Joseph’s Pharaoh was one of the Hyksos rulers, but the Biblical evidence fits better with the view that a Hyksos Pharaoh was the “king who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8).

“Shepherd Kings”?

© The Trustees of the British Museum

Manetho wrote more than 1000 years after the Hyksos lost power, but some of his record fits well with archaeological evidence.  The Hyksos were Asiatic peoples (with Canaanite names), probably from Syria and Canaan, who ruled the Egyptians in 1650-1550 B.C.  They ruled only the northern half of the country, establishing their capitol in Avaris.

© The Trustees of the British Museum

The Egyptians hated the Hyksos, and left them out of the Egyptian king-lists, in the ancient tradition of selective history.  They weren’t on the ancient monuments, and the great commentator Karl Keil doubted they existed, though more evidence has turned up since his day.

The Hyksos Museum items are relatively few and small, with many beetle-shaped scarab seals like those above.  These were from the first Hyksos ruler, Salitis — perhaps the “king who knew not Joseph.”  The seal from a finger-ring to the left comes from the time of Khyan, near the end of the Hyksos dynasty.

Josephus called them “Shepherd Kings,” but we don’t know if he was correct, or if the designation meant anything.  For our purposes, it doesn’t matter whether the Hyksos were “Shepherd Kings” or not.

Was Joseph’s Pharaoh a Hyksos?

As mentioned above, some Bible scholars think Joseph’s Pharaoh was one of the Hyksos.  In The Big-Ears Pharaoh I mentioned reasons to see Senusret III as Joseph’s Pharaoh.  However, many scholars put Joseph in the Hyksos period so we’ll take a few minutes on it.

One reason cited is dating.  Some think Galatians 3:17 puts Abraham in the time of Senusret III, and thus they put Joseph in the time of the Hyksos. This is not the only way to understand Galatians 3:17, so alone it is not conclusive.

Another reason sometimes given is the idea that a foreign Pharaoh was more likely to promote a Hebrew than a native Egyptian would be.  I give this little credence — the record of Genesis 41 provides enough explanation for his promotion, even if one forgets the sovereign working of God (and one should never forget that).

Joseph doesn’t fit in the Hyksos period very well:

  • Joseph shaved when going to see Pharaoh, hinting at a native Egyptian administration.  Asiatics usually wore beards, Egyptians typically were clean-shaven.
  • Joseph was placed “over all the land of Egypt” (Genesis 41:41, 43).  The Hyksos only ruled the northern part of Egypt.
  • Joseph’s wife was a daughter of a sun-priest (Genesis 41:45) — a great honour under a native Egyptian, less so to a Hyksos.
  • Egypt’s rulers held Hebrews in abomination (Genesis 43:32).  The Hyksos would likely have seen Hebrews (from the same region) as potential allies, not abominable enemies.
  • They also hated shepherds (Genesis 46:34, etc.).  Though the Hyksos may or may not have been “Shepherd Kings,” there is no evidence they hated shepherds, and it makes little sense given their background.
  • Genesis 47:18-20 doesn’t make sense if the Egyptians were slaves under the Hyksos.

While the identity of Joseph’s Pharaoh can’t be certain, if one takes the clues in the Biblical record seriously it is hard to see how Joseph fits in the reign of the Hyksos.

“More and Mightier than We”

Exodus 1:8-10

8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph.
9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we:
10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.

Verse eight hints at more than the normal succession of father to son — a change of dynasty, perhaps, to one with no appreciation for Joseph and his service to Egypt.  There were many dynasty changes in Egyptian history — but in many cases, appreciation for past service would continue.  That would not be the case if the new king was a foreigner, especially if he came to power through an invasion.

Verse nine is the strongest evidence that this is a Hyksos king.  The children of Israel were 600,000 adult men when they left (Exodus 12:37).  This was still far less than the native Egyptians — but if Pharaoh were a Hyksos ruler, it makes perfect sense.  The Hyksos had an army of 240,000 men in Avaris — strong enough to be difficult to beat, but a small enough force to feel threatened by a growing Hebrew nation.

Moses died at the age of 120 (Deuteronomy 34:7) in about 1405 B.C.  Since the oppression was in full force, including the killing of male babies, when he was born (Exodus 2), it must have started before 1525 B.C.  That also fits the Hyksos period (1650-1550 B.C.).


The children of Israel were enslaved, perhaps not by native Egyptians, but by a Canaanite or Syrian ruling in Egypt.   In 1550 B.C., when Ahmose I drove out the Hyksos, there was no reason to deliver the Hebrews.  THEY weren’t Egyptians, they were just slaves.

He would have said, “There’s too many Hebrews, anyway — keep them as slaves.  If they keep growing, I can kill some.”  The girls are no threat, and you don’t kill working slaves who can build cities, pyramids, and such.  Just kill some baby boys (Exodus 1:15-22).

It didn’t work.  Satan always moves people to oppress, mock, and even kill those who are the Lord’s.  His hatred always shows itself — and it never works.  God’s people may suffer for a season, but the time always comes when our Lord says, “Let My people go.”  No one ever succeeded in exterminating the Lord’s people, in thwarting His plan.  No one ever will.


Sources for this series:

Summary post for the series, with links to other articles on Bible-related artefacts:
The Bible in the British Museum

About Jon Gleason

Former Pastor of Free Baptist Church of Glenrothes
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11 Responses to A King Who Knew Not Joseph

  1. Lujack Skylark says:

    Joseph served an Egyptian king (Genesis 41:41-45) while the foreign Canaanite/Hyksos came into Egypt trading their horses for food. (Genesis 47:13-17) The Egyptian king held the power with Joseph’s help confiscating all the land of Egypt except for the priests land. (Genesis 47:20-22) It was Senusret III who fought around Shechem and annexed Canaan. (Genesis 34:25) Jacob’s family slew all the males of Shechem and God terrorized all the surrounding cities. (Genesis 35:1-6) Jacob’s family was at Bethel most likely when Senusret III invaded Canaan.
    The Execration Texts first curses against foreigners appeared in Senusret III’s reign because some Egyptians like the nomarch’s did not like giving up their land. The Canaanite/Hyksos supported Egypt’s 12th dynasty. Some Egyptians did not. Ahmose did not like the Canaanite/ Hyksos expelling them from Egypt in the first Exodus. The Hebrew Exodus came later in 1495 B.C.
    Abydos Egyptian kings lists after Amenemhet IV 12th dynasty the next king was Ahmose 18th dynasty.

    • Jon Gleason says:

      I agree that Joseph wasn’t under a Hyksos, though I don’t think Genesis 47:13-17 proves it. Even if there had been a Hyksos ruler in Egypt, those back in Canaan would have still been coming for food, and horses would be one thing they possessed which they could trade for it. So I’m not sure that passage really tells us anything about who was on the throne. But certainly, Senusret seems to fit most of the evidence we do have.

      None of the difficulty is with the Biblical account. The difficulty is that the Egyptian historical records are patchy, and the Biblical account is not intended to give us Egyptian history, but the history of God’s working with His people. So we just get a few details in the Scripture about what was going in in Egypt itself.

      Here’s one interesting thing. In the tenth plague, Pharaoh didn’t die. So the Pharaoh who was on the throne at the time of the Exodus was not a first-born son. And his firstborn died, so the Pharaoh who succeeded him wasn’t a first-born, either. So there were two Pharaohs in a row who weren’t first-born, the Pharaoh of the Exodus and the one after him.

  2. Lujack Skylark says:

    Egyptian pharoah Thutmose III and Amenhotep II were not first born sons. Check this out. Amenhotep II had two rebellions in Asia. Most likely the Asiatics like the Canaanites heard about the Red Sea miracle (Joshua 2:10) and then rebelled. Prince Thutmose would have a dream about clearing sand away from the Sphinx that if he cleared away the sand he would become Egypt’s next king. Perhaps the strong winds parting the Red Sea (Exodus 14:21) also caused a sandstorm in Egypt burying the Sphinx. Prince Thutmose became Thutmose IV. Amenhotep III declares himself a living sun-god. Why? God caused the sun to stand in the sky for almost 24 hours.(Joshua 10:12-14) The Egyptian people were frighten. Amenhotep III declared himself a sun-god so as having power over the sun he could resolve the crisis. Amenhotep III also receives the Tel-Amarna letters from Canaanite kings stating the Haribu (Hebrews) had invaded Canaan. Akenaton’s poetry is much like (Psalms 104). Akenaton’s uncle Tushratta was Cushan-Rishathaim. (Judges 3:8) All evidence indicates Thutmose III was the Exodus pharoah some 480 years before Solomon’s 4th year. (1 Kings 6:1)

    • Jon Gleason says:

      Click to access ExodusPharaohArticle.pdf

      He argues that Amenhotep II was the pharaoh of the Exodus, rather than Thutmose III. For what it’s worth. The case seems fairly strong, but the precise dating of the Exodus comes into play, obviously. If you are right about 1495, it can’t really be Amenhotep II.

      • Lujack Skylark says:

        I traced the Biblical numbers discovering 586 B.C. was the date Jerusalem fell. I traced the Judah kings backwards using their reign of years in the books of Kings and Chronicles. Mathematics reveals Solomon’s reign is 1019-979 B.C. Solomon’s 4th year is 1015 B.C. some 480 years after the Exodus. (1 Kings 6:1) Rehoboam’s 5th year is 974 B.C. some 521 years after the Exodus. Shishak (1 Kings 14:25) attacked Jerusalem and also died a few months later in 974 B.C. I ran the reign of Egyptian kings backwards and Amenhotep II’s reign would exist 1495-1471 B.C.
        Thutmose III required all Egyptian captives to bow before Egyptian gods. The Hebrews Moses would not bow before Egyptian gods. (1 Kings 6:1) makes Thutmose III the likely Exodus pharoah yet others do believe its Amenhotep II.

  3. Wayne McCleese says:

    I agree that Salitis is the king that knew not Joseph. Send me your email address and I will send you my Biblically based timeline. I will try to copy it here but it probably will be garbled.
    From Birth of Joseph to Slavery From Birth of Moses to Dividing of Promised Land

    1st yr Famine 1st Hyksos King End Hyksos rule
    1794 BC

    Amenemhat III Yakbim Ya’ammu Sheshi Salitis Apepi Khamudi Ahmose I Amenhotep Thutmose I Thutmose II Hatshepsut (has power) Thutmose III
    Sekhaenre Nubwoserre rules with Thutmose III
    1860-1814 BC 1805-1780 BC 1780-1770 BC 1745-1705 BC Around 1650 BC 1575-1540 BC 1541-1540 BC 1540-1524 BC 1525-1504 BC 1506-1493 BC 1493-1479 BC 1478-1458 BC 1479-1425 BC

    Jacob Dies Moses in Egypt 40 years Moses in Midian 40 years Moses Leader of Israel in Wilderness
    Joseph Age 147 New King did not 40 years
    Interprets 1775 BC know of Joseph
    7 & 7 Dream Ex. 1:8 and put
    Joseph born 1801 BC Joseph Dies burden on children Moses born Moses leaves Moses leads Moses dies
    1831 BC Age 110 of Israel (Jacob) 1572 BC Egypt Exodus Israel enters
    Joseph sold into Jacob (age 130) & Family Enter Egypt 1721 BC 1532 BC 1492 BC Promised Land
    Egypt at age 17 1792 BC 1452 BC

    Promised Land
    Not to Scale Not to Scale divided between
    tribes 1442 BC
    Note: Note:
    Let’s start with the date of 586 BC for the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians and count backwards. Let’s start with the date of 586 BC for the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians and count backwards.
    By adding the length of all the Kings of Judah in I & II Kings in the Bible it comes to 393.5 years. By adding the length of all the Kings of Judah in I & II Kings in the Bible it comes to 393.5 years.
    That is very close to the 390 years stated for the “iniquity of the house of Israel” in Ezekiel 4:4-6. That is very close to the 390 years stated for the “iniquity of the house of Israel” in Ezekiel 4:4-6.
    Therefore, I believe the reigns of the kings of Judah listed in I & II Kings are accurate with 390 years being a little more Therefore, I believe the reigns of the kings of Judah listed in I & II Kings are accurate with 390 years being a little more
    accurate than the summing of the reigns. accurate than the summing of the reigns.

    586 + 390 = 976 BC, would be the end of king Solomon’s reign (end of the united kingdom). 586 + 390 = 976 BC, would be the end of king Solomon’s reign (end of the united kingdom).
    976 + 40 = 1016 BC, would be the beginning of king Solomon’s rule (1 Kings 11:42) 976 + 40 = 1016 BC, would be the beginning of king Solomon’s rule (1 Kings 11:42)
    1016 – 4 = 1012 BC, would be the 4th year of king Solomon’s rule 1016 – 4 = 1012 BC, would be the 4th year of king Solomon’s rule
    1012 + 480 = 1492 BC, would be the year of the Exodus (1 Kings 6:1) 1012 + 480 = 1492 BC, would be the year of the Exodus (1 Kings 6:1)

  4. Marcus Bartlette says:

    The Exodus occurred in 1446 BC, and Amenhotep II was the exodus-pharaoh. Both him and the succeeding pharaoh, Thutmose IV, were not their father’s firstborn, allowing them both to survive God’s Tenth Plague. Please see attached link for all of the evidence:


    • Jon Gleason says:

      Hello, Marcus. The article you linked is the same one I linked in a comment above. As I said then, the argument seems a strong one. I’m not sure we can be sure because Egyptian history is extremely uncertain, and God didn’t tell us the names of these Pharaohs. The fact that He didn’t suggests we don’t need to know — but it is certainly interesting to study the question.

      • Ed says:

        The pharaoh of the oppression was likely Ahmose I. I also heard that he began to enslave Asiatics and Semites after his rise to power. The Pharaoh of the exodus was likely Thutmose II.

      • Jon Gleason says:

        If what we know of the Egyptian timeline is correct, Ahmose appears to fit approximately in the date range when the oppression began (so also would the later Hyksos rulers). If the Hyksos were Asiatics then it is possible Ahmose would have seen the Hebrews as the Hyksos’ allies and so oppressed them. So you may be correct.

        We will likely never know. I’m not very persuaded about Thutmose II as the Pharaoh of the exodus, but again, we’ll likely never know that for certain either.

        Fortunately, while this is interesting and correlations between ancient Egyptian history and Scripture can be an encouragement to faith, none of it is really all that important for faith and holiness. We can try to figure it out but we don’t need to know.

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